This is part 2 of the Conservative Reading List Part 1 may be found here.
I recommend Saint Thomas Aquinas because no thinker has impacted me so deeply in such a limited amount of time.Aquinas spent his life working to produce a synthesis of Classical thought built on Aristotle and Christianity; this synthesis may be viewed as the apogee of Medieval, Christian, and Classical thinking. Aquinas was not just a theologian, but one of the most eminent philosophers in history. This collection has provided me with a broad sweep of Thomistic thought. Thought that is still relevant today. The Catholic Church derives the majority of political and ethical positions from the original efforts of Aquinas to guide us toward, God through the use of both reason and revelation. If you have any desire to understand the modern ethical arguments (perhaps the most influential and well articulated in all human history) made by the Church or just understand the reconciliation of reason and faith I cannot recommend Aquinas enough.
I cannot recommend Irving Kirstol enough; to me he is timeless. Kristol covers a broad canvas, but much of this particular book is composed of articles related to capitalism, great society reforms, faith, and the family. The collection is composed of articles from the wonderful magazines (all founded by Kristol) Encounter, Public Interest, and the National Interest. I recommend this particular book because it covers Kristol's foundation thoughts, which in essence provide the founding document of Neo-Conservative political thought. We have a preconceived notion of what Neo-Conservatism is in a descriptive sense, and Kristol does a great deal to show that this understanding of Neo-Conservatism is misguide or incorrectly attributed.